Muito se tem falado em direitos humanos e muito se tem mal compreendido esta luta milenar pela efetivação das prerrogativas que toda pessoa possui, pelo simples fato de pertencer à família humana. Consideramos fundamental que esta temática seja incorporada às agendas públicas e privadas para que possamos alcançar um futuro ao abrigo do medo e da necessidade. Tendo em vista que a conscientização é um ato endógeno, realizado de maneira subjetiva pelos indivíduos, a partir de uma mudança na compreensão de determinado assunto, chegamos à inevitável conclusão de que ninguém conscientiza ninguém. Daí a importância de se jogar luz sobre o assunto, levando às pessoas informações que lhes permitam fazer – elas próprias – a travessia entre o desconhecimento e a atitude. Por isto escolhemos o Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada – DHAA para dar início ao Parlatório, uma série de artigos sobre questões ligadas à gastronomia – entendida aqui em seu conceito ampliado, proposto por Brillat-Savarin, como “práticas e conhecimentos fundamentados sobre tudo o que se refere aos humanos, na medida em que se alimentam”. Qualquer outro assunto que este blog venha a tratar, decorrerá do direito inalienável que todo ser humano tem de se alimentar adequadamente. É nele que reside a gênese de qualquer conteúdo teórico que possamos produzir. Se é para começar de algum ponto, o mais lógico é começar do início: comida de qualidade, na mesa de todos, em quantidade suficiente, respeitando a cultura gastronômica dos territórios. Como sabemos que falar de gastronomia hoje é fashion, que os assuntos a ela relacionados estão na ordem do dia de todas as mídias, queremos surfar nesta onda e ajudar a transportar o leitor para além do discurso fácil da gourmetização.

Qualquer outro assunto que este blog venha a tratar, decorrerá do direito inalienável que todo ser humano tem de se alimentar adequadamente.

No próximo ano, comemoraremos os 70 anos da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos – DUDH. Diferentemente do contexto em que foi criada, não vivemos hoje a comoção de uma guerra mundial. Entretanto, várias outras guerras – declaradas ou não – ainda dificultam a efetivação dos direitos estabelecidos na DUDH, em 1948, e nos instrumentos internacionais que se seguiram. A fome, a miséria e a discriminação também são motivadoras de conflitos, criando verdadeiros regimes de apartheid social em várias localidades do planeta.

Hoje, a precariedade da nossa cidadania parece transformar os direitos em um bem escasso, em algo que só pode ser alcançado mediante determinadas condições. Podem, inclusive, tornar-se objeto de disputa entre pessoas consideradas merecedoras e não merecedoras de direitos. É como se os benefícios recebidos pelos não merecedores representassem uma privação ou um ônus para os demais membros da sociedade. Sendo assim, contra pessoas ou grupos sociais considerados beneficiários indevidos, justificam-se medidas para reduzir os benefícios, ou seja, para restringir os direitos.

Sabemos que os direitos humanos têm como atributos a universalidade, a indivisibilidade e a interdependência. Com isto, podemos concluir que eles se aplicam a todos os seres humanos, não podem ser considerados de maneira isolada, não existe hierarquia entre eles e que dependem uns dos outros para que possam se realizar na plenitude. De fato, de pouco vale o direito à educação, se não há transporte; o direito à moradia, se não há saneamento, por exemplo. Ainda assim, é fato que o direito à vida é o ponto de partida para os demais, pois é ele que garante a existência do sujeito de direito. Pois bem, partindo do pressuposto de que é preciso haver vida para que sobre ela recaia proteção, não podemos falar em direitos humanos sem considerar a alimentação – requisito indispensável para a vida humana se verifique.

Mesmo parecendo óbvia a importância de proteger o direito à alimentação, a Constituição Brasileira só veio a incorporá-lo explicitamente no rol dos direitos sociais em 2010, com o que ficou conhecido como o Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada – DHAA. Antes da Emenda Constitucional nº 64, o direito à alimentação era tratado de forma implícita em outros dispositivos legais, como o direito à saúde e à assistência social. Ao reconhecer finalmente o DHAA como direito autônomo, o Brasil foi alçado a um patamar superior no conjunto dos direitos sociais.

Mas, o que significa o DHAA? Com a ajuda de doutrinadores, chegamos a uma definição resumida, a partir de duas premissas: 1) disponibilidade de alimentos, de modo permanente, regular e irrestrito, livres de substâncias adversas, em quantidade e qualidade suficientes para atender às necessidades dietéticas do ser humano e 2) acesso sustentável e sem prejuízo dos meios necessários à fruição de outros direitos. Em outras palavras: o DHAA estará protegido quando todas pessoas se alimentarem bem – quantitativa e qualitativamente –, de forma sustentável e sem comprometer o acesso a outras necessidades básicas. É direito fundamental de todas as pessoas, portanto, estar a salvo da fome e da má nutrição, apesar de não ser esta uma realidade para considerável parte da população mundial.

Ainda que tardia, a inclusão do direito à alimentação na salvaguarda constitucional representou um importante passo para uma mudança de concepção que ainda está em processo de construção no Brasil: a de que não basta uma produção significativa de alimentos – representada por safras recordes a cada ano – enquanto grupos de brasileiros tiverem fome ou estiverem subnutridos.

É direito fundamental de todas as pessoas, portanto, estar a salvo da fome e da má nutrição, apesar de não ser esta uma realidade para considerável parte da população mundial.

Esta discussão é visivelmente multidisciplinar, sendo indispensável a incorporação de outras questões, além da distribuição do alimento. Aspectos relativos ao acesso à terra e à tecnologia, à contaminação biológica e química, à qualidade nutricional do alimento, à centralidade da comida na cultura (tão condicionada hoje a preocupações hiper-higienistas), ao tecido social conectado ao setor produtivo e à dignidade do seu trabalho, à homogeneização dos sabores versus a singularidade do produto, a métodos de produção em consonância com o equilíbrio ambiental, enfim, um sem-número de temas transversais são chamados a integrar o debate, se realmente desejamos alcançar um modelo inclusivo de gastronomia no Brasil.

As duas proteções proporcionadas pelo DHAA – contra a fome e a má nutrição – são igualmente urgentes e prioritárias. Se a primeira arrebata solidariedade pela forma aguda com que se manifesta, a segunda é igualmente avassaladora à saúde humana por provocar doenças crônicas, como o diabetes, a hipertensão e a obesidade. São duas faces bem visíveis de um cenário de desigualdades que permeia as relações modernas: o subconsumo e o superconsumo. Comum a ambas, a descaracterização do alimento enquanto insumo biológico e cultural e sua subordinação às regras de mercado. A influência dos agentes econômicos gera inegável impacto em todos os elos da cadeia produtiva do alimento. Isto faz com que grupos economicamente vulneráveis tenham acesso precário à comida enquanto outros a utilizem em excesso ou até desperdicem.

Considerada em suas reais dimensões, nada do que for relacionado à alimentação será estranho à gastronomia.

Num modelo que não se enquadra nos padrões mínimos de racionalidade, os países industrializados enfrentam os efeitos da espiral ascendente de consumo, restando aos países em desenvolvimento as consequências da fome e da miséria. Este paradoxo permite compreender porque muitos se equivocam ao considerar a gastronomia como um conjunto de conhecimentos e práticas elitistas. Se a segurança alimentar e nutricional da totalidade de população mundial ainda é um horizonte a ser perseguido, parece uma afronta falar em algo diferente do acesso ao DHAA. Entretanto, se analisarmos os 17 Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável que compõem a Agenda 2030, adotada pela Organização das Nações Unidas, em 2015, constataremos que 16 apresentam estreita conexão com a gastronomia, e um deles – o ODS #2 – trata especificamente da erradicação da fome. Ou seja, considerada em suas reais dimensões, nada do que for relacionado à alimentação será estranho à gastronomia. Aí, incluída a fome.

Para nós, opsófagos, exatamente por ser coisa dos homens, a fome dá pra interromper. Basta que nos reconciliemos com o direito de comer. 

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