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GOSTO SE DISCUTE (E SE APRENDE TAMBÉM)

 



Até pouco tempo atrás, falar em gastronomia era sobretudo falar da satisfação de comer bem.  Este conceito reducionista vem sendo ampliado pela incorporação de outros três elementos, por um movimento que se convencionou chamar de Nova Gastronomia ou Gastronomia dos 4S. Pelo novo modelo, a cozinha atual, além de satisfatória, deve ser também saudável, solidária e sustentável. De fato, o mundo atual exige que a gastronomia seja muito mais do que uma cozinha de qualidade. Ela deve estar engajada também a questões sociais, ambientais, nutricionais e éticas.

A saudabilidade foi introduzida no conceito de gastronomia em razão do fato cientificamente comprovado de que a alimentação inadequada é um importante fator para desencadear vários tipos de doenças. A lógica é a mesma identificada por Álvaro Pires, no didático artigo intitulado La bouteille à mouches: uma mosca presa na garrafa só consegue sair dela voltando pelo mesmo caminho que entrou. Se a dieta alimentar contribui para várias disfunções orgânicas, nela também está a prevenção e o tratamento. Comer bem assumiu atualmente, portanto, tanto o caráter profilático quanto o terapêutico.

O segundo elemento da gastronomia moderna é a solidariedade. Não basta que alguns privilegiados desfrutem de uma boa alimentação. É preciso que ela seja acessível – em quantidade e qualidade – a todas as pessoas. O prazer de usufruir uma boa alimentação, por sua vez, tem relação estreita com a comensalidade, palavra cuja etimologia pressupõe convivência à mesa. Comer e beber juntos gera novos vínculos de amizade e reforça os antigos, pois remete a sentimentos de união e fraternidade .  A universalização e o compartilhamento são, portanto, atributos da solidariedade alimentar.

Em terceiro lugar, a gastronomia deve ser sustentável. Pensar na segurança alimentar das gerações futuras é imperativo no mundo atual. Para além do aspecto ecológico, do ponto de vista gastronômico, a cozinha de proximidade, que utiliza produtos locais e orgânicos e que respeita a sazonalidade e o comércio justo, é uma cozinha de muito mais qualidade.

O quarto e último S é a satisfação. Aparentemente menos importante que os demais, o prazer é fundamental para que os sistemas alimentares incorporem os outros três elementos. Jean-Louis Flandrin, conceituado historiador francês, diz que “uma coisa é comer algo esporadicamente ou ainda por hábito; outra coisa é apreciá-la”. Ninguém come o que não gosta por muito tempo, mesmo que isto coloque em risco sua saúde, o planeta e as outras pessoas.  A satisfação ao comer é indispensável do ponto de vista sensorial, mas também psíquico, já que é um elemento substancial de equilíbrio psicológico e emocional. Felizmente, podemos dizer que o comer saudável, sustentável e solidário não é incompatível com o deleite do alimento. Isto porque o prazer de comer é definido pelo gosto, que pode ser aprendido. É sobre isso que falaremos a seguir.

Os sistemas alimentares são formados pela biologia e pela cultura e se conectam intensamente com percepções individuais e coletivas de sabor. Sob o aspecto biológico, o sabor de um alimento é determinado pela avaliação que fazemos do seu gosto e do seu cheiro. Assim, pode-se dizer que, fisiologicamente, sabor = gosto + cheiro. Receptores específicos da língua e do palato são responsáveis pela avaliação física do gosto. Já o cheiro é analisado por duas modalidades de olfato: o ortonasal e o retronasal. Sentimos o cheiro de um café sendo coado graças à olfação ortonasal, incumbida da percepção dos aromas externos ao nosso corpo. Já a olfação retronasal nos permite sentir o cheiro do alimento internamente, depois de deglutido, em um engenhoso processo de estímulo sensorial. É a soma das percepções físicas de cheiro e gosto que nos leva a reconhecer um alimento como saboroso ou não.

Até aqui, o funcionamento é igual em todo o reino animal. Mas, como dito anteriormente, o processo de formação dos sistemas alimentares apresenta outro contributo além da biologia. Há nele também um forte componente cultural. O cérebro, ao fazer a mediação dos estímulos capturados pelos sentidos, permite que espécies com desenvolvimento cerebral avançado utilizem maior número de variáveis ao definir suas preferências alimentares. A capacidade de correlacionar sensações inatas e adquiridas torna as experiências alimentares dos humanos muito mais complexas do que as de outras espécies animais.

Para os humanos, o alimentar-se vai além da dimensão funcional, assumindo também um caráter relacional. Gostamos de comer juntos porque a refeição é uma forma de comunicar o alimento e de criar uma narrativa em torno dele. É possível, inclusive, contar a história de uma civilização a partir dos dados fornecidos por sua cultura gastronômica. A estrutura de uma sociedade fica evidenciada nos produtos que determinados grupos consomem. O mesmo historiador citado anteriormente cunhou a expressão “estruturas do gosto” para ressaltar o caráter coletivo e compartilhado da experiência de comer.

É fato que a estratificação da cozinha em diferentes níveis sociais estabelece hábitos e predileções relacionados aos modos de preparo e à seleção de ingredientes. Contudo, a história da alimentação não tem sido contada de maneira idêntica pelos extratos sociais que a construíram ao longo dos tempos, o que dificulta a compreensão global do processo de construção do gosto. Conhecemos bem a cozinha do poder, mas só formulamos hipóteses sobre a cozinha proletária. Por haver pouca memória escrita capaz de codificar o repertório culinário das classes mais baixas, a transmissão do seu legado não chegou intacta a gerações posteriores. O registro foi construído a partir de fragmentos esparsos, nem sempre fidedignos. Só recentemente a cozinha se abriu para uma maior transversalidade social de práticas e hábitos alimentares. Assim sendo, encontramos hiatos na história do gosto dos pobres, sobretudo nos períodos medieval e renascentista.

Em que pese a falta de elementos para uma análise mais profunda acerca das preferências gustativas de determinadas sociedades, sabemos que tanto o gosto coletivo quanto o gosto individual muitas vezes são cíclicos. Produtos que não tinham prestígio passam a ter, e os que tinham, podem cair em desuso. Antigamente, a cor do pão que uma pessoa podia comprar indicava sua capacidade econômica. Quanto mais branco, mais caro o produto. Hoje, só os mais abastados conseguem comprar pães escuros de grãos integrais. Com isto percebemos que, alteradas certas condições, invertem-se os valores. Outro exemplo é a kombucha, bebida milenar chinesa incluída na lista dos produtos trendies da atualidade. Se o pão escuro e a kombucha já eram consumidos pela humanidade há milênios, por que o súbito revival dos dois produtos na versão gourmet? A pergunta é fácil de ser respondida sob a perspectiva do gosto. O objeto de desejo é o produto mais raro – e, consequentemente, mais caro – acessível somente a uma parcela da população. Isto faz com que certos alimentos ganhem notoriedade e passem a ser disputados. Ávido por novidades, o mercado se vale frequentemente destas (re)descobertas para impulsionar as vendas. O que muda não é o gosto fisiológico, mas os hábitos e costumes dominantes que orientam a formação do gosto cultural.

Da mesma forma, produtos definidores de reputação social atualmente – champagne, caviar e fois gras, por exemplo – podem perder tal condição, caso as práticas, os rituais ou as normas de comportamento contribuam para tanto.  A justificativa para o fenômeno está no fato de que as estruturas do gosto são tributárias das estruturas de poder vigentes. Assim sendo, as escolhas alimentares de um povo estão intimamente vinculadas aos valores e significados estabelecidos pelas elites.

Como vimos, o marco sob o qual definimos nossa relação com o gosto não é estático, em função do capital cultural envolvido. Vale ressaltar que o processo de sua formação é contínuo, porque o gosto não é uma propriedade inata e sim o apanhado das diferentes condições vivenciadas pelos indivíduos ao longo das suas trajetórias de vida. Os encontros e desencontros do ser humano com o sabor dos alimentos são frequentes e redivivos. Por esta razão, os ícones simbólicos da dieta alimentar de uma sociedade são historicamente variáveis e periódicos.

Fatores subjetivos também podem nos levar a gostar ou não de determinado alimento em alguma época de nossas vidas. De acordo com Nicola Perullo, em sua obra O Gosto como Experiência, “o paladar nunca está só na boca: o que chega pelas papilas é só o começo, apenas aciona uma rede de funções e referências”. Isto ocorre porque a alimentação é uma experiência que envolve todos os sentidos. Pesquisa realizada pela Universidade de Massachussetts indica que as memórias do sabor são mais intensas devido ao seu caráter polissensorial. Assim, se um alimento é associado a determinada situação desagradável que vivenciamos, nossa tendência é rejeitá-lo. Não por suas propriedades organolépticas (cor, brilho, odor, sabor e textura), mas pelo sentimento que nos faz recordar. Ultrapassados os bloqueios causados na memória gustativa, a rejeição tende a ser revertida.

Além de fatores subjetivos, nossas preferências alimentares sofrem forte influência dos padrões sociais.  De fato, a comida expressa um sentido de território e de pertencimento ao grupo social que o habita. Em outras palavras, o gosto dos outros pode se tornar o gosto da gente. Comportamentos alimentares miméticos nos levam a comer o que os outros comem. Em um mundo de curtas distâncias, instalou-se uma verdadeira ditadura do gosto. Com a rapidez e a efemeridade que caracterizam os padrões contemporâneos, determinados alimentos se tornam must eat e novos anticristos alimentares são eleitos, nem sempre acompanhados de evidências científicas que comprovem os benefícios ou malefícios responsáveis por tal eleição.

Na obra de Massimo Montanari, Comida como Cultura, encontramos o que, para nós, é a síntese perfeita de tudo que dissemos neste artigo sobre o processo de construção do gosto humano. Segundo o escritor, gosto é sabor quando a seleção do alimento é feita na língua e no palato, dando origem a uma experiência individual e incomunicável. O gosto é saber quando a avaliação sensorial do que nos agrada ou desagrada vem do cérebro, hipótese em que a experiência é coletiva e comunicável. A soma do gosto físico (sabor) e do gosto cultural (saber) seleciona o que gostamos de comer. Simples assim.

É no contexto do gosto como saber que os defensores da Nova Gastronomia propõem uma alimentação livre de estereótipos, educando as pessoas para a diversidade e para a não homogeneização dos sabores. Para eles, mudanças culturais positivas podem desafiar clichês mercadológicos, empurrar os limites da cultura e expandir os horizontes dos sentidos quando falamos de sistemas alimentares. Da mesma forma que os ouvidos podem ser educados para a música e os olhos para as artes plásticas, estes, o tato, o olfato e o paladar também podem ser educados para o gosto.

A mudança dos hábitos humanos fez com que a educação familiar, passada anteriormente de geração em geração, em torno de uma mesa, necessitasse atualmente do apoio da educação formal. Neste sentido, algumas iniciativas interessantes têm sido desenvolvidas.  A Resolução 2181 recomenda aos 28 Estados-Membros da Comunidade Europeia a inclusão, no sistema educativo, desde a primeira infância, de conhecimentos que possibilitem a educação dos sentidos visando à formação de hábitos alimentares saudáveis. Estabelece ainda que a população estudantil receba não apenas conhecimentos teóricos, mas que experimente, vivencie e eduque o gosto, a fim de desfrutar sensorialmente de uma dieta que, além de saudável, seja também prazerosa. Uma verdadeira ode à contracultura alimentar libertária.

Por fim, concluímos que o gosto não é um link que se abre com um simples clique. É preciso um mergulho profundo nos sentidos para compreender seus meandros. Se comer é um ato de ativismo, é educando o gosto que produziremos transformações individuais e coletivas. Por isso dizemos que gastronomia é sobre comida, sim. Mas não é sobre comida apenas. É sobre pensar também. Antes, durante e depois de comer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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