DestaquesT’OPS

UMA NOVA LEI PARA O QUEIJO MINEIRO

O Queijo Minas Artesanal é reconhecido como Patrimônio Cultural e Imaterial Brasileiro pelo Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico Nacional (Iphan), devido ao seu valor cultural e histórico não somente para Minas Gerais, mas para todo o país. Sua produção, caracterizada pelo uso do lei cru (não pasteurizado), possui mais de 300 anos de tradição no estado.

Para além do produto, Minas Gerais também possui um inegável protagonismo no processo evolutivo das legislações estaduais relativas ao queijo artesanal. A Lei nº 14.185/2002, primeiro marco regulatório mineiro, serviu de inspiração para a criação de diversas leis estaduais. Desde então, sempre que Minas atualiza sua legislação, ela se torna diretriz para o aperfeiçoamento das leis de todo o país. Exemplo disto são os estados que aprovaram suas leis recentemente (Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Norte) e aqueles onde há projetos de lei em tramitação (Rio Grande do Sul, Goiás e Espírito Santo), todos fortemente influenciados pela legislação mineira. Agora, uma vez mais, Minas sai na frente com uma lei inovadora, que incorpora demandas históricas dos produtores de queijo artesanal.

É fato que o poder público desempenha os importantes papeis de regulação e fiscalização do processo produtivo. Entretanto, no exercício destes papeis, o produtor precisa ter no Estado um facilitador e não um obstáculo. Para que isto aconteça, é imprescindível oferecer a ele regras condizentes com a relevância do bem tutelado. A Lei nº 24.218/2018, sancionada hoje pelo Governador do Estado, é resultado da obstinação histórica de muitas gerações de produtores. Assim como a história de Minas, a história do queijo mineiro é uma história de resistência. Impossível não se emocionar com a trajetória de superação de tantas famílias. Ao realizarem um ofício silencioso e revolucionário, elas reafirmam sua luta histórica para manter vivo um dos principais símbolos da cultura gastronômica mineira.

Ao lado dos aspectos econômico e social, o queijo artesanal apresenta também um viés cultural. Ele é a síntese de muitos saberes e fazeres, que devem ser preservados e protegidos. Neste sentido, é visível o esforço dos elos da cadeia produtiva em estimular processos orgânicos, buscar novos aportes de conhecimento científicos, eliminar barreiras estruturais, conjunturais e – principalmente – legais.  O grande desafio sempre foi encontrar uma solução que contemplasse tanto a proteção ao modo tradicional de fazer queijo quanto a segurança sanitária. E tal solução só poderia ser encontrada dentro na legalidade, pois seria inaceitável que um dos símbolos gastronômicos do estado fosse considerado clandestino. O setor percebeu que era hora de sair das discussões episódicas e dar efetividade ao debate. A atuação prosperou em nível federal, onde finalmente foram encontrados mecanismos de concessão de habeas corpus para que o queijo pudesse exercitar o direito de ir e vir no território brasileiro.

Em Minas, a tramitação de um novo marco legal para o queijo foi marcada por uma intensa participação popular, com reuniões, audiências públicas, debates e seminários, de onde saíram contribuições que aperfeiçoaram sobremaneira o texto original. Aliado a isto, estudos da legislação comparada de países onde o queijo artesanal possui regulação própria e projeção no mercado internacional, como França, Portugal, Suíça e Espanha, culminaram num texto em que o protagonista passa a ser o produto e não mais o processo.

Vivemos hoje um momento ímpar na história do queijo artesanal de Minas. Mas não podemos nos acomodar sobre os louros da conquista. Começa agora uma nova fase, igualmente importante, que é a elaboração dos regulamentos. Para isto, é fundamental a continuidade da mobilização de todos os atores envolvidos para que a implementação da lei se dê de forma rápida e integral.

Dizem que os mineiros carregam impresso na alma o orgulho pelo seu queijo. Podemos dizer que, na nossa, carregamos orgulho duplo: pelo queijo da nossa terra e por ter contribuído, ainda que de forma reconhecidamente modesta, neste importante trabalho de evolução legislativa que, por certo, ficará registrado na história do queijo mineiro.

Inovações introduzidas pela Lei nº 24.218/2018

  1. Reconhecimento do queijo como um dos símbolos da identidade mineira e determinação de que sua produção deve ser protegida pelo Estado.
  2. Os tipos de queijo artesanal de Minas deixam de figurar em lei para serem objeto de regulamento do produto. Por este instrumento, fundamentado em estudo técnico, o Estado reconhece tipos de queijo artesanal com características de identidade e qualidade específicas.
  3. Garantia de participação de produtores, pesquisadores e profissionais especializados na elaboração dos regulamentos previstos na lei.
  4. O produtor fica livre para desenvolver variedades de queijo a partir da adição de ingredientes ou de alterações pontuais em seu processo de fabricação. A inovação estimula a diversificação dos produtos, abrindo mais oportunidades de mercado. Antes da lei, só havia reconhecimento legal em Minas Gerais para o queijo tipo Minas Artesanal de Casca Lavada e não eram permitidas variações dele.
  5. Permite a produção de queijos artesanais com leite extraído de outras fêmeas além das vacas  e com a combinação de diferentes tipos de leite. Com a previsão legal, já possível produzir em Minas queijo como o Valfríu, o mais caro do mundo (veja aqui), feito com leite de vaca, cabra e ovelha.
  6. Possibilidade da utilização de equipamentos e utensílios tradicionais, como bancadas e formas de madeira, desde que não interfiram nos parâmetros de qualidade estabelecidos para cada tipo de produto.
  7. Permite a utilização de leite produzido fora da propriedade ou posse em que se situa a queijaria, nos casos previstos em regulamento.
  8. A produção do queijo artesanal passa a compor o universo das agroindústrias de pequeno porte, disciplinadas pela Lei nº 19.476/2011.
  9. Pela primeira vez no Brasil, a atividade da afinação é reconhecida como uma etapa na autônoma no processo de fabricação do queijo.
  10. Reconhecimento do queijo como um dos símbolos da identidade mineira e determinação de que sua produção deve ser protegida pelo Estado.
  11. Previsão de maturação em ambiente climatizado ou área subterrânea (caverna). Até então, só era permitido em temperatura ambiente.
  12. Permissão para doação de produtos apreendidos que apresentarem condições adequadas de consumo. Em Minas – e só aqui por enquanto – desperdícios como o ocorrido com a chef Roberta Sudbrack no Rock in Rio 2017, em que toneladas de queijo foram incinerados, poderão ser evitados.

 

Galeria de fotos (crédito: Alex Vilaça e Victor Alexandre)

 

 

 

 

 

 

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