TÍTULO

Comida como cultura

AUTOR

Massimo Montanari

TRADUÇÃO

Letícia Martins de Andrade

EDITORA

Senac São Paulo

2ª EDIÇÃO: 2013

NOTA DA EDIÇÃO BRASILEIRA

“Decididamente o estar no mundo sempre exigiu da espécie humana a adaptação dos elementos da natureza às suas necessidades. E alimentação tem papel fundamento no desenvolvimentos dos diferentes grupos humanos, sendo responsável, na verdade, pela própria fundação da cultura, ou das várias culturas estabelecidas pelas sociedades. A comida é expressão da cultura não só quando produzida, mas também quando preparada e consumida. Segundo o historiador italiano Massimo Montanari, as pessoas não fazem uso apenas do que é oferecido pela natureza, mas criam seus próprios alimentos, preparam-nos por meio de técnicas – hoje bastante sofisticadas – e não comem qualquer coisa, mas escolhem o que lhes convêm segundo critérios também culturais. Comida como cultura é assim um livro essencial para aqueles que buscam compreender melhor esse ser que se entende antes de tudo como “ser social”, cuja identidade é o resultado de um intenso entrecruzamento desenvolvido ao longo da história.” (pag.9)

POR QUE RECOMENDAMOS

A primeira vez que lemos Comida como cultura foi em 2013, ano do lançamento da 2ª edição. De lá para cá, ele se tornou um dos nossos livros de cabeceira, estando sempre à mão na hora de preparar textos e palestras. Nestas férias, resolvemos revisitá-lo sem outro interesse específico além do prazer da boa leitura, feita com calma e de maneira linear, e não com o folhear rápido de páginas à procura de sustentação teórica para argumentos preconcebidos.

Para nós, no que se refere à cultura, conhecer o novo e revisitar o antigo são duas paixões distintas em relação às quais não é possível estabelecer preferência. Conhecer uma obra nova é como passar por uma estrada pela primeira vez. A curiosidade pelo desconhecido e a emoção da descoberta nos estimula e encanta. Da mesma forma – e em igual intensidade – também somos seduzidos pelas boas lembranças do que vimos, lemos, ouvimos e comemos nas estradas já percorridas. Isto porque não há sensação de deja vu diante de uma obra pelo simples fato de que experiências culturais nunca se repetem.

Exemplo disto foi a releitura do Comida como cultura cinco anos depois. O texto continua o mesmo, mas nosso lugar de leitura hoje é outro. Refletimos sobre inúmeros aspectos que passaram despercebidos às nossas lentes de observador na primeira vez. Talvez porque este seja um daqueles “poucos livros totais”, que precisam ser relidos, “sempre e sempre, com obtusa pertinácia”, conforme definiu Nelson Rodrigues. Embora apresentado de forma acessível, seu conteúdo é denso, o que nos leva a múltiplas reflexões sobre o significado cultural da comida. Tais reflexões podem ser aprofundadas a cada vez que recorremos ao livro com uma bagagem maior de conhecimento teórico ou de experiência empírica.

Vamos, então, a uma breve sinopse da obra.

SINOPSE

O historiador Massimo Montanari faz uma síntese dos temas centrais da história da alimentação – de forma forma articulada e precisa – ao longo dos quatro capítulos do livro. O primeiro deles, intitulado “fabricar a própria comida”, aborda a relação ancestral homem/território/cultura e os conflitos sociais, culturais e ambientais inerentes à passagem de uma “economia de predação” para uma “economia de produção”. Povos caçadores e coletores – que se alimentavam de recursos naturais – cedem lugar aos povos agrícolas, responsáveis pela fabricação artificial de sua comida. Os obstáculos de tempo (sazonalidade dos alimentos) e espaço (restrições de território) deram origem ao tensionamento entre grupos sociais com interesses conflitantes. Enquanto aos mais pobres faltava alimento para fins de subsistência, os mais abastados o estocava para fins comerciais. Estava instaurada a luta de classes baseada no controle do alimento.

Em a invenção da cozinha, o autor distingue o homem dos outros animais pelo fato de que somente ele é capaz de fazer cozinha, ou seja, transformar o produto natural em algo diverso. Cita a introdução do fogo como elemento primordial da diversidade alimentar dos humanos, mas explica que o ato culinário não pressupõe necessariamente o uso do fogo (técnica japonesa de preparo de peixe cru). Define a cozinha como “conjunto de técnicas dirigidas à preparação do alimento. Tangencia a questão de gênero, ao mostrar que, historicamente, a cozinha muda de sexo quando sai do ambiente doméstico: de prática eminentemente feminina passa a ser um ofício exercido principalmente por homens. Aborda a questão da “anticozinha”, dando como exemplo o crudivorismo (dieta que utiliza exclusivamente alimentos crus) para pontuar que, ainda assim, trata-se de um comportamento alimentar impregnado de cultura. Finaliza o capítulo com o pseudo conflito entre prazer e saúde, contrapondo a ideia de que o prazer é saudável ou “o que agrada faz bem”.

O terceiro capítulo, sob o título de o prazer (e o dever) da escolha, reforça as duas naturezas do gosto (sabor e saber) para concluir que se trata de um produto sociocultural. Divaga sobre a moda atual da cozinha “histórica” para dizer que se trata de uma experiência gastronômica limitada, tendo em vista a impossibilidade de se reconstituir as sensações de um tempo. Critica o chamado “revival folclórico”, movimento que tenta recuperar o passado descaracterizando seu significado. A relação entre o quanto comemos e o que comemos aparece no livro sob a perspectiva comportamental e social. O autor afirma que a quantidade exprime um “comportamento de classe”, enquanto a qualidade tem conexão direta com o pertencimento (identidade) social. A comida de calendário, ou aquela tradicionalmente servida em determinadas datas, perde espaço no mundo atual. O autor aponta como possíveis razões o abandono de determinadas simbologias (cordeiro na Páscoa) e o fato de que muitas comidas de calendário hoje estão disponíveis o ano todo (panetone). Demonstra que a regionalidade da comida tem registros históricos desde antes de Cristo e que o novo é a “cultura de território” ou a procura pelo comer local. Como último tópico, trata do aparente paradoxo entre o local e o global. Conclui afirmando que o modelo de consumo global pode coexistir pacificamente com a singularidade do local, fundando o fenômeno da glocalização.

O último capítulo, comida, linguagem, identidade, aborda a partilha do alimento (comer junto), o léxico da comida (elementos que compõem uma estrutura de linguagem da comida), as substituições e incorporações (alterações que modificam um determinado sistema alimentar ou criam um novo), a identidade e a troca (comida é cultura; cultura é produto da história; a troca modifica a identidade), as raízes (mito do ponto de partida; a identidade está no final do percurso). Encerrando o capítulo, o guia à leitura, valiosa lista de referências bibliográficas dos temas tratados no livro.

MARCAÇÕES DO OPS

“Comida é cultura quando produzida, porque o homem não utiliza apenas o que encontra na natureza (como fazem todas as outras espécies animais), mas ambiciona também criar a própria comida, sobrepondo a atividade de produção à de predação.” (pag.16)

“Os métodos de conservação dos alimentos, aprimorados pelo impulso da fome, rapidamente ultrapassam tal dimensão com um tipo de transferência tecnológica que os viu aplicados à alta gastronomia: assim nasceram muitos “produtos típicos” que constituem uma parte decisiva do nosso patrimônio gastronômico. Revelam-se, dessa forma, vínculos talvez insuspeitos entre o mundo da fome e o mundo do prazer.” (pag.41)

“… médico e cozinheiro são duas faces de um mesmo saber.” (pag.88)

“A comida não é “boa” ou “ruim” por si só: alguém nos ensinou a reconhecê-la como tal. O órgão do gosto não é a língua, mas o cérebro, um órgão culturalmente (e, por isso, historicamente) determinado , por meio do qual se aprendem e transmitem critérios de valoração.” (pag.95)

“… se quisermos falar dos “modelos do gosto”, de como eles se formam e se modificam no tempo, uma pergunta que não podemos deixar de fazer é: o gosto de quem? Está bem claro, de fato, que a fome (de muitos) e a abundância (de poucos) dificilmente levam às mesmas escolhas.” (pag. 109)

“… se invertemos o ponto de vista social de referência e passamos do contexto da pobreza ao da riqueza, o mecanismo de formação do gosto parece, também ele, inverter-se. Objeto de desejo não é mais o alimento abundante, mas o raro; não aquele que enche e faz passar a fome, mas aquele que estimula e convida a comer mais.” (pag. 111)

“Na Idade Média, ninguém poderia ter pensado em uma “comida de território”, porque a noção de território anula, ou pelo menos enfraquece, as diferenças sociais. No momento em que o paradigma da cozinha se torna o espaço, todos (em teoria) podem ocupá-lo, o senhor e o cidadão, exatamente como o camponês.” (pag.143)


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